Respiratory Support for Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Dexamethasone

The Journal of Pediatrics • April 2017.

Virkud YV, Hornik CP, Benjamin DK, Laughon MM, Clark RH, Greenberg RG, Smith PB.

To assess how neonatal intensive care units followed the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for use of dexamethasone in preterm infants by evaluating respiratory support at the time of dexamethasone administration. This is an observational study of infants discharged from one of 290 neonatal intensive care units from 2003 to 2010. The cohort included very low birth weight (<1500 g birth weight) infants born at ≤32 weeks gestational age. The main outcome was respiratory support at time of exposure to dexamethasone.

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Fluconazole in Premature Infants with Birth Weights Less than 750 Grams

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy • August 2016.

Momper JD, Capparelli EV, Wade KC, Kantak A, Dhanireddy R, Cummings JJ, Nedrelow JH, Hudak ML, Mundakel GT, Natarajan G, Gao J, Laughon M, Smith PB, Benjamin DK Jr.

Fluconazole is an effective agent for prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis in premature infants. The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) and dosing requirements of fluconazole in infants with birth weights of <750 g. As part of a randomized clinical trial, infants born at <750 g birth weight received intravenous (i.v.) or oral fluconazole at 6 mg/kg of body weight twice weekly.

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Safety of histamine-2 receptor blockers in hospitalized VLBW infants

Early Human Development • August 2016.

Romaine A, Ye D, Ao Z, Fang F, Johnson O, Blake T, Benjamin DK Jr, Cotten CM, Testoni D, Clark RH, Chu VH, Smith PB, Hornik CP; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network.

Histamine-2 receptor (H2) blockers are often used in very low birth weight infants despite lack of population specific efficacy and safety data. We sought to describe safety and temporal trends in histamine-2 receptor (H2) blocker use in hospitalized very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

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Sildenafil and retinopathy of prematurity risk in very low birth weight infants

American Journal of Perinatology • February 2016.

Samiee-Zafarghandy S, van den Anker JN, Laughon MM, Clark RH, Smith PB, Hornik CP; Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network Administrative Core Committee.

We identified premature infants who were discharged from Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 2003–2012 and who received an ophthalmologic exam. We matched each infant exposed to sildenafil prior to first eye exam to three non-exposed infants using propensity scoring to control for differences in baseline infant characteristics. We evaluated the association between sildenafil exposure and development of severe ROP using conditional logistic regression.

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Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy after necrotizing enterocolitis in VLBW infants

Pediatrics • January 2015.

Autmizguine J, Hornik CP, Benjamin DK Jr, Laughon MM, Clark RH, Cotten CM, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Benjamin DK, Smith PB; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act—Pediatric Trials Network Administrative Core Committee.

To evaluate the effect of anaerobic antimicrobial therapy for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on clinical outcomes in very low birth weight (≤1500 g) infants. We identified very low birth weight infants with NEC from 348 US NICUs from 1997 to 2012. Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy was defined by antibiotic exposure on the first day of NEC. We matched (1:1) infants exposed to anaerobic antimicrobial therapy with infants who were not exposed by using a propensity score stratified by NEC severity (medical and surgical).

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