Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on candidiasis and mortality in premature infants: a randomized clinical trial

JAMA • June 2014.

Benjamin DK Jr, Hudak ML, Duara S, Randolph DA, Bidegain M, Mundakel GT, Natarajan G, Burchfield DJ, White RD, Shattuck KE, Neu N, Bendel CM, Kim MR, Finer NN, Stewart DL, Arrieta AC, Wade KC, Kaufman DA, Manzoni P, Prather KO, Testoni D, Berezny KY, Smith PB; Fluconazole Prophylaxis Study Team.

Invasive candidiasis in premature infants causes death and neurodevelopmental impairment. Fluconazole prophylaxis reduces candidiasis, but its effect on mortality and the safety of fluconazole are unknown. This study was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole in premature infants. Infants weighing less than 750 g at birth (N = 361) from 32 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States were randomly assigned to receive either fluconazole or placebo twice weekly for 42 days.

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